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Asilo e accoglienza ecco come si muove l’Europa

Europe di

Le Agenzie Europee impegnate nel miglioramento del sistema dell’asilo e dell’accoglienza ai rifugiati: il caso della Grecia.

Un paese europeo a noi molto vicino, la Grecia, ci sta dando una lezione importante: come sfruttare al meglio l’operato e l’efficienza della Agenzie Europee nel settore Justice and Home Affairs.

Non tutti sanno che, infatti, nella capitale maltese de La Valletta, esiste un’Agenzia Europea che fornisce assistenza qualificata nel settore dell’asilo e dell’accoglienza di chi l’asilo lo richiede: si tratta dell’EASO, ossia dell’European Asylum Support Office. L’Ente – che tra i sui compiti annovera proprio quello di fornire expertise ed addestramento nel settore dell’asilo e dell’immigrazione e, maggiormente, in favore degli Stati Membri i cui confini sono più duramente messi alla prova – ha firmato un accordo particolare con la Grecia pochi giorni fa.

L’accordo in questione, denominato “Special Support Plan to Greece”, prevede, in maniera molto particolareggiata, che l’Agenzia fornisca ad Atene il massimo supporto in determinate aree identificate quali prioritarie nei settori asilo ed accoglienza. Tra queste, la pianificazione ed il sostegno ai progetti già in itinere, l’addestramento del personale e, soprattutto, il corretto reperimento di fondi Europei ad hoc devoluti. Il tutto fino a maggio 2016.

La richiesta di tale supporto è stata ufficialmente formulata dai nostri vicini di casa nei primi mesi del 2015, e nasce su input del consolante quadro di risultati più che soddisfacenti ottenuti dal paese ellenico negli anni precedenti e sempre dalla stessa agenzia europea “maltese”. E già, perché il supporto alla Grecia aveva avuto inizio nel 2011, con un “Operating Plan to Greece”, messo in essere proprio in virtù dei pressanti flussi di immigrazione irregolare che nascevano fuori dai confini esterni all’Unione. In quella circostanza fu stabilita un’efficiente e sostenibile struttura di asilo e di accoglienza mediante l’impiego di squadre di esperti sul territorio greco, che contribuirono anche a codifcare un sistema di richieste e modulari da presentarsi a cura dei richiedenti asilo alle Autorità elleniche, le cui strutture di ricezione furono anche logisticamente migliorate rispetto a quelle già esistenti.

Ma non è tutto: un altro “Operating Plan to Greece” è stato reiterato nel 2013 ed è stato principalmente finalizzato all’addestamento del personale ed alla corretta gestione dei fondi dell’Unione stanziati per il settore.

Stavolta questo piano di supporto è, come dice il nome stesso, realmente “speciale”: le squadre dell’EASO stanno lavorando a stretto contatto con le Autorità greche, usufruendo però anche del supporto di FRONTEX, altra più (tristemente?) nota agenzia europea e con l’UNHCR dell’ONU.

Gli obiettivi: oltre alla già citata e consueta necessità di addestramento in favore degli addetti ai lavori ed alla consulenza in una sana gestione dei fondi europei reperiti a sostegno del budget nazionale, gli esperti aiuteranno a sviluppare una corretta policy di gestione dell’asilo e delle strutture di accoglienza dei minori non accompagnati, la cui gestione nei centri di accoglienza richiede particolari cautele da parte degli operanti, ed altrettanto particolari tutele nei confronti delle vittime più innocenti dei fenomeni che dell’immigrazione irregolare stanno alla base.

Sembra lecito domandarsi quando il nostro Paese – che è il secondo contributore al bilancio dell’UE – svilupperà e concepirà strumenti giuridici simili, beneficiadi dell’aiuto delle stesse istituzioni europee che contribuisce a mantenere.

 

Domenico Martinelli

 

 

 

Moas, Xuereb: “Immigration in Mediterrean sea is an International issue that requires a Global solution”

Europe di

Immigration has become an International issue. The European Union and Onu try to find a solution to this emergency because Italy and Malta can’t be left alone. To talk about these questions, European Affairs has interviewed Martin Xuereb, Director of Migrants Offshore Aid Station (Moas).

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When and why was Moas founded?

“Moas was setup in 2014 in Malta. The idea came to Regina and Christopher Catambrone after that 400 migrants drowned close to Lampedusa during the summer of 2013. After the visit of the Pope in Lampedusa, again in 2013, when he made an appeal to help these people in any possible way, Regina and Christopher had the spark. They started thinking about an organization to save lives in Mediterranean context because none deserves to die out at sea. I became involved in February of 2015, when they proposed this project to me to help, aid and save migrants’ lives”. We are a private entity and we depend on the donations people make. We hope that our message, that life is precious no matter who the person is, ispires others to donate.

 

What’s yours working activity?

“We started this project last year. We went out at sea where after a 16-day operation we saved 3000 people. We came back in September and October. At the end of October, we started thinking about an operation in 2015. Now, one thing that is very different from 2014, it’s our partnership with Msf. They have taken over and provided host rescue assistance. Moas has a 40 metre boat (Phoenix). Again, it’s two Remote Piloted Aircraft and two RHIBs (rigid-hulled inflatable boats) that can react and fly if there is higher requirement of information: they are coordinated by the Rescue Coordination Center. Then, we have two dinghies that can be deployed if there is a boat out at sea that needs assistance. The choice to take migrants on board is taken in coordination with the Rescue Coordination Centre. When migrants are on boats, Msf, with their doctors , nurses and logistics thing will take over to provide them with medical care and to feed them”.

 

How are competences learned during humanitarian rescues on the high seas important?

“Searching rescue is very challenging. You need capability, knowledge and attitude to most risk. Obviously, you need to work for the love of it, but more importantly you need to be able to do professionally rescues because we are dealing with people’s lives”.
What were results in the last year?

“3000 people were saved in 60 days of operation in 2014. In 2015, starting from May 2nd, we have rescued 1,441people, from unseaworthy boats in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. MOAS carried out six separate rescue missions, providing shelter and lifejackets to 106 children, 211 women and 1,124 men on board the 40-metre (130 ft.) vessel M.Y. Phoenix”.

 

What institutions and entities you are collaborating with?

“First of all is Rome’s Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre. Then, we are receiving the support of the Rescue Coordination Centre in Malta. They have the responsibility to coordinate rescue missions and we are happy to receive tasks from them. Their relationship is very positive. They’re very much aware of our capability, of the fact that we do not only have boats out at sea, but we also have drones and clinic on board. While like every other boat out there, we have legal obligation to assist boats in distress: we have made it our mission. The difference between us and merchant ships is that our mission is that of saving lives.
After European Council tripled Triton’s funding, have immigration became an European issue?

“I think that this is an International issue that requires a Global solution. We are saying that Europe should not be weak. We would want to see a wider perspective. I need to say this because everyone needs to be aware that most of the rescues are being conducted in International waters. Why should Italy take responsability by itself when rescues are conducted in International waters? Rescue missions should be coordinated by someone else. We think that people should come to the rescue: not only states, but also private companies and entities. As Moas, in conjunction with Msf, we want to bring on the table a new modus operandi”.
Giacomo Pratali

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Libya, Gentiloni: “No military operation”

Europe/Middle East - Africa di

Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs turned down a Un campaign. But Libyan national unity looks faraway because of Haftar’s enmity.

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“No military intervention has been decided either by the EU or by the UN Security Council”. This Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni said, during Italian television show Agorà, denying armed operation conducted at Libyan coasts by International contingent.

Moreover, Gentiloni stated that any positive resolution of the United Nations Monday, May 18, “only authorizes the confiscation and seizure of boats at sea and the identification through intelligence in territorial waters before they embarked the migrants”. This is because “we have to fight organized crime make it more bearable conditions in the countries of origin.” All European partners “have to share it: but some progress might has been made”, he explained again.

If the Tripoli government Tripoli could accept the International solution, Tobruk government didn’t agree. Khalifa Haftar, Chief of the Armed Forces, said he’s worried about a possible “military action against our shores.” In addition, last Monday he agreed the bombing of a Turkish merchant ship, guilty of “failing to comply with orders not to approach the city of Derna,” the former CIA agent said. After a ship’s crew is killed, Ankara has said that it’ll recur in International court.

This context is not supporting exhausting negotiations conducted over two months since UN delegate Bernardino Leon. His optimism about an agreement between governments and factions clashes with Libyan reality.

Libya reality mean civil war. A civil war which involves even children. After 3 deaths a few days ago, another 7 kids were killed a few hours ago by a mortar round in the city of Benghazi. According to Associated Press, it would be attributable to Islamic State and Ansar al Sharia and it’s involved 8 victims, all from the same family.
Giacomo Pratali

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Elezioni UK: vincitori, vinti e affari futuri

Europe di

“Hanging on in quite desperation is the english way – Sopravvivere in una quieta disperazione è il modo all’inglese”, così cantavano i mitici Pink Floyd nel lontano 1972, versi che descrivono alla lettera l’attuale situazione emotiva dei laburisti inglesi nel post voto popolare del 7 maggio scorso. Il Regno Unito rimane decisamente conservatore e spiazza ogni previsione di “sfida all’ultimo voto”. Hanno vinto i Tories.

Circa 11 milioni e 300 mila voti per 331 seggi su 650, ovvero 24 in più rispetto al 2010, sono una conferma piena al mandato di Cameron. Quelli che hanno determinato la vittoria dei Tories e la disfatta dei Lab sono stati i cosiddetti swing voters, ovvero coloro che cambiano schieramento politico e che decidono per temi, argomenti o vantaggi volta per volta. Nel sistema elettorale inglese uninominale questo atteggiamento è decisivo alla conta finale. In definitiva, i conservatori sono cresciuti del 0,7% e i laburisti del 1,5% rispetto al 2010, quindi chi ha deciso vincitori e sconfitti sono stati i voti raccolti dalle altre formazioni politiche “secondarie” quali UKIP con il 12,6% e soprattutto l’ SNP di Nicola Sturgeon con il loro 4,6%. I scozzessi hanno spazzato via i laburisti guadagnando 56 seggi su 59 previsti per loro in Parlamento. Il linguaggio empatico, indipendentista e molto più di sinistra dei laburisti ha premiato. Non pervenuti i lib-dem di Nick Clegg fermi a soli 8 seggi, 49 in meno rispetto al 2010, crollo clamoroso.

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Come funziona il sistema elettorale inglese del “first-past-the post”?

I parlamentari britannici vengono eletti attraverso il sistema dell’uninominale maggioritario secco. I partiti si contendono 650 collegi su tutto il territorio ed in ognuno di essi a vincere, ovvero a guadagnarsi un seggio in Parlamento è il candidato che prende più voti. Gli elettori possono esprimere una sola preferenza e a governare è il partito che si è aggiudicato il maggior numero di parlamentari. Sistema imperfetto : Il candidato deve assicurarsi solo la maggioranza semplice ed è possibile quindi che la maggioranza di persone in quel collegio abbia in realtà votato anche per altri candidati. Succede che un partito che in molti collegi non arrivi primo, possa aggiudicarsi, sì un gran numero di voti, ma conquistare pochi seggi. E’ successo a UKIP proprio in questa tornata elettorale. Allo stesso modo, il partito che alla fine forma il governo potrebbe in realtà aver ricevuto meno voti del suo rivale. Ogni collegio, inoltre, è diverso, a cominciare dal numero di elettori che lo compongono: un candidato che vince in un piccolo collegio può quindi aver ottenuto molti meno voti di uno che ha invece perso in un collegio molto imponente, ad esempio i grandi centri urbani, le città. Esattamente quello che è successo ai laburisti, vincenti nelle città più importanti, ma perdendo nei centri non urbani.

I britannici votano la promessa dell’economia e il ridimensionamento del tasso di disoccupazione, mentre penalizzano la “speranza”, l’equità e l’attenzione alle classe lavoratrici, tanto proclamata dai candidati del Partito Laburista in campagna elettorale. Votano un Cameron pragmatico e penalizzano un timido Miliband, troppo impacciato, troppo serioso, troppo “senza polso”, almeno nell’immaginario mediatico rappresentato.

Votano anche un probabile futuro fuori dall’Europa?

David Cameron ha dichiarato all’indomani del voto, “Possiamo fare della Gran Bretagna un luogo dove il buon vivere è alla portata di chiunque abbia voglia di lavorare e fare le cose in modo giusto”,- e ha aggiunto, “ però, si, ci sarà un referendum sul nostro futuro in Europa”. Il Brexit, questa volontà degli inglesi di ufficializzare le distanze dal continente politico, potrebbe prendere forma nel 2017, probabile anno del referendum. Jean-Claude Juncker ha definito “non negoziabili i fondamenti dell’Unione, come la libera circolazione di persone”, punto debole fisso dei rapporti con Londra. Centro nevralgico della finanza europea, la City significa troppo per l’UE e di certo non sarà una passeggiata affrontare un eventuale ricorso per separazione. I negoziati in corso per il TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partenership) che vedono il Regno Unito protagonista saranno decisivi in questo di mediazioni tra USA e UE.

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Sabiena Stefanaj

Immigration: waiting for Un Security Council

Defence/Europe di

A new military plan seems in Mediterranean context after Eu choice to triple Triton funding.

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United Nations will call a straordinary Security Council on 18th May, following 1500 migrants died since the beginning of 2015 in the last two months. After the latest European Council, wherein “Triton” are been tripled, Eu is waiting for this assembly to enact a military action against pontoom coming from Libya. Summit will be opened by Federica Mogherini, Eu High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

Meanwhile, the number of landings is increasing day by day. Italy and Malta have received 300 and 98 migrants in the last two days. Moreover, Catania Public Prosecutor’s Office is inquiring into supposed shipwreck of 40 people, reported by some witness on board ship and Save The Children, happened on the night of Tuesday 5 May 2015.

Giacomo Pratali

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Ukraine, 8 killed again: end of Minsk pact?

Europe di

One soldier and 7 civilians slayed after Donetsk airport’s fights. But Kiev denied and accused pro-Russian rebels.

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Ceasefire in Ukraine is staggering. The last dispute happened on 3rd May. Ukrainian army killed 8 people (1 soldier and 7 civilians) during bombing against Donetsk airport, how reported by separatists. It’s unofficial news, but Kiev Minister of Foreign Affairs publice notice told about “lies” because “pro-Russians rebels fired 35 times against regular soldiers in the last 24 hours”.

Meanwhile, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni, as he said La Stampa, restated that “Italy will substain Kiev if Kiev has to do necessary financial and constitutionalreforms, including Donbass independence”. But “even if we applied economic sanctions against Russia, we know Moscow importance in International crisis areas, like Syria and Libya”, Gentiloni said before Putin visit to Expo in the next days.

Giacomo Pratali

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Eu: “No military mission in Ukraine”

Defence/Europe/Policy di

Setting Ukraine entry in European Union in Kiev summit beteween Donald Tusk and Petro Poroshenko.

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“We are only thinking about civilian mission, not military”. As European Council President Donald Tusk replied to Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko, after he asked European Union an army operation to fight pro-Russians rebels in Donbass. In Kiev summit, Poroshenko said also that Ukraine could reach “necessary requirement to access to Eu in five years”.

About the Eu entry, Ukraine Prime Minister Arsenij Yatseniuk told on La Repubblica in 21st April that “it caused Putin and rebels attack in Donbass. Our civil war costed 1800 soldiers and 6000 civilians killed from 2014. Moreover, the ceasefire is not respected by separatist, who are following to use weapons and fire”, he ended. On the other hand, three pro-Russian journalists are killed in Kiev last week: Oles Buzina, Sergej Sukhobok and Oleg Kalashnikov. While Vladimir Putin told of “political assassination”, several Ukrainian big names unbelievably celebrated them.

Giacomo Pratali

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Migrants: Renzi-Ban Ki Moon summit

Defence/Europe/Policy di

The Italian prime minister leaned on the UN Secretary General for international police operation against the boats from Libya.

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“Stopping human traffickers in order to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe is an absolute priority, and we count on UN support for this”, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi said during the summit with United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon EU High Foreign Representative Federica Mogherini. They met on board the San Giusto in Sicily Channel because “I want to physically show him what Italy is doing”, Renzi reiterated.

Migrants slaughter and many landings planned in the coming months made this meeting necessary. After more funding to Triton operation, set last Thursday by the European Council, Italian premier, supported by France, Great Britain and Spain, wishes for an “international police operation” aimed at destroying vessels.

Ban Ki Moon told about an “humanitarian emergency which entire International Community have to answer defending the asylum right. While regarding to Lybian context, Un Secretary General said that “there are no alternatives to dialogue on Libya. Special UN representative Bernardino Leon and his team are following to work with the Libyan sides involved to help them reach together a compromise”, he ended.
Giacomo Pratali

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Cell terror in Italy desintegrated

BreakingNews @en/Europe di

Due to a 10-year investigation which had began following a probe into illegal immigration, italian counter-terror police arrested 18 people Friday, suspected of links with Al Qaida. A terror cell that was organizing a bomb plot against the Vatican, investigators said.

The arrested are afghan and pakistani nationals, including Osama Bin Laden’s bodyguards and a spiritual leader of a minor muslim community in Sardinia.

By all of the arrested there are also some suspected of involvment in the October 2009 bombing of the Meena Bazaar in Peshawar, Pakistan, that caused the death of 100 people and more than 200 injured.

Those arrested are also suspected to be involved in a fall down design of the Pakistani government, police said.

Italian prosecutor Mauro Mura stated in a press conference in Cagliari (Sardinia) that the terror suspected, were planning an attac at the Vatican in 2010, and a suicide bomber had arranged to land in Rome. Matter of fact, the plot went no further and the suicide bomber left Italy without explication, prosecutor Mura said.

The authorities told that this operation has included the investigation on 7 italian provinces “targeting an alleged organisation dedicated to transnational criminal activities inspired by al-Qaida and other radical organisations pursuing armed struggle against the west and insurrection against the current government of Pakistan”.

Recordings indicate that the involved used to talk “ironically” about the pope, Benedict XVI and were trying to rise  jihad in the whole Italy. An unidentified imam who used to perform in Brescia and Bergamo, northern Italy, is believed to be another key leader of the terror cell.

“There was evidence that the 2009 Peshawar attack was substantially planned and financed from Olbia, Sardinia, and that Italy-based militants had taken part in it”, Mario Carta, an officer in the anti-terrorism unit behind the investigation, said.

Another weighty aspect of the terror cell involvement is the international funds deliver in Pakistan from Italy, avoiding the italian currency controls, as once happened when € 55258,00 were sent on a flight from Rome to Islamabad.

“From what it appears, this concerns a hypothesis that dates from 2010 which didn’t occur,” Federico Lombardi, the Vatican spokesman, said in a statement. “It has therefore no relevance today and no reason for particular concern.”

Back in the day, Pope Benedict XVI was facing resentment due to a 2006 speech when he only paraphrased a Byzantine emperor who characterised some of the teachings of the prophet Muhammad as “evil and inhuman”.

The Charlie Hebdoe’s offices terror attac and the ones at a Copenhagen’s speech debate and at a cafe in Sydney had raised a heavy climate all across Europe and counter terror police operations are becoming much more persevering in these days.

Eu, immigration crisis: more funding to Triton operation

Defence/Europe di

European Council decided to triple Triton operation funding. But Northern countries, like Great Britain, have denied to accept asylum seekers.

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€120m to support Triton and Poseidon operations. European Council have decided to increase funds to Mare Nostrum level on 23rd April. A choice which satisfied in half Italy because James Cameron, Angela Merkel and Francoise Hollande, in the previous summit, will render army assistance but will not receive asylum seekers. The Northern Europe leader have asserted that there is no common immigrant policy.

About a possible military operation in Libya, Merkel said it could based only on international law and United Nations resolutions. While European Council President Donald Tusk said leaders had asked EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini “to propose actions in order to capture and destroy the smugglers’ vessels before they can be used”.

After more than 800 died last Sunday ad several migrants who arrived to Italy from Libya, Europe lost the opportunity of a common immigration policy. Northern and Southern nations have different point of views.

Even about Mare Nostrum operation, ended last October, received different opinions. For some Eu members it was too expensive and stimulated more immigration. But Human Rights groups and Italian point of view are not in agreement because new Triton plan is “contributing to a dramatic increase in migrant and refugee deaths”.

 

Giacomo Pratali

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Giacomo Pratali
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