GEOPOLITICA DEL MONDO MODERNO

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Giornalista uccisa a Malta: l’OSCE e l’UE impegnati nei diritti umani, nella libertà di stampa e di espressione.

È stato comunicato ufficialmente oggi dall’OSCE che la 19esima conferenza sull’Open Journalism in Asia Centrale (che si terrà a Tashkent dal 17 al 19 ottobre), verrà presieduta dal Rappresentante dell’OSCE per la libertà di stampa, Harlem Désir, che ricopre questo incarico dal luglio scorso. La conferenza sull’Open journalism nell’Asia Centrale si tiene ogni anno e garantisce un form per la discussione di questioni relative alla libertà di espressione ed integrai

(fonte www.osce.org)

doveri istituzionali dell’OSCE nello specifico settore, ovviamente in territorio centroasiatico. Désir incontrerà nella circostanza alti funzionari degli Stati aderenti e rappresentanti della società civile e dei media per discutere, in particolare, dello stato della libertà di stampa in Uzbekistan ed in tutte le aree di competenza dell’OSCE. Ma oltre alla rappresentativa uzbeka, lo stato dell’arte in materia verrà discusso in questi due giorni da oltre 100 partecipanti, tra cui attori istituzionali, giornalisti ed accademici provenienti da Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan e Turkmenistan, con rappresentanti provenienti persino dalla Mongolia ed altri esperti internazionali. Il Rappresentante OSCE ha il compito di monitorare gli sviluppi della libertà di stampa e di espressione presso i 57 Stati membri dell’OSCE e di denunciare le violazioni in tali settori, indicando anche quali siano le prescrizioni dell’OSCE in materia. E proprio oggi, per esempio, ha chiesto alle autorità maltesi di indagare velocemente sull’omicidio di Daphne Caruana Galizia, giornalista uccisa in questi giorni sull’isola. Nel formulare le sue condoglianze alla famiglia, Désir si è detto “profondamente scioccato ed offeso dall’omicidio” della giornalista, che ha definito “fiera, investigatrice e coraggiosa”, ed ha chiesto che tutto il mondo conosca chi ne ha cagionato la morte.

Daphne Caruana Galizia (fonte www.wikipedia.it)

La collega era infatti autrice su Malta Indipendent, e scriveva su un suo blog personale. È  morta questo lunedì (16 ottobre) pomeriggio in una macchina appena noleggiata, che è esplosa con lei a bordo: aveva denunciato di essere stata minacciata di morte due settimane prima. Già da febbraio – si legge in una nota dell’OSCE – l’ufficio del Rappresentante per la libertà di stampa aveva invitato le autorità maltesi a proteggere la giornalista e la libertà di stampa, in generale. È pur vero che lo stesso Rappresentante – cha ribadito come “silenziare i giornalisti uccidendoli sia un fatto inaccettabile” ha apprezzato sin da subito le indagini immediatamente avviate dagli inquirenti della polizia maltese ed ha ulteriormente espresso apprezzamento per il fatto che il Primo Ministro Muscat e le altre autorità abbiano immediatamente condannato l’attacco. Non esistono delle stime ufficiali e universalmente condivise sullo stato della libertà di stampa nel mondo. Annualmente l’organizzazione Reporters san frontières stila una classifica di 180 Paesi: quest’anno l’Italia si è classificata solamente al 52° posto. Ma come vengono compilati questi elenchi? Ce lo spiega in un suo articolo di aprile u. s. la giornalista de La Stampa Nadia Ferrigo. L’ONG per giornalisti invia ai suoi partners dei questionari da compilare in merito a  “pluralismo, indipendenza dei media, contesto e autocensura, legislatura, trasparenza, infrastrutture e abusi”. All’ultimo posto? Ovviamente la Corea del Nord, di cui abbiamo svariate volte esaltato le prodezze geopolitiche su questa rivista. Ma come mai l’Italia è in una zona quasi di pericolo? Parrebbe che i giornalisti si sentano in parte minacciati dalla pressioni politiche, ed optino talvolta per non esprimersi. La colpa, sembrerebbe, è da attribuirsi ad alcuni partiti populisti, che hanno assunto talvolta posizioni anti-media. Ma per correttezza (e non per paura) preferiamo non entrare nella discussione politica.

Harlem Désir, rappresentante OSCE per la libetà di stampa (fonte www.OSCE.org)

Apprezziamo invece il lavoro dell’OSCE e ci rammarichiamo davvero per la scomparsa di una collega, vittima della sopraffazione e dell’ignoranza che, purtroppo, non hanno bandiera e non hanno colore. Anzi: forse hanno proprio tutte le bandiere e tutti i colori. Alla sua famiglia ed ai suoi colleghi, le espressioni più sentite della redazione di European Affairs.

Ci fa piacere e ci entusiasma, invece, come proprio oggi anche l’UE abbia ribadito l’importanza dei diritti umani e, tra questi, quello ad esprimersi liberamente. Il Consiglio “Affari esteri”, in data odierna, ha discusso infatti della politica dell’UE in materia di diritti umani e delle modalità migliori per promuoverli nei contesti bilaterali e multilaterali. L’Istituzione europea ha ribadito l’impegno dell’UE a promuovere e proteggere i diritti umani ovunque nel mondo, adottando conclusioni sulla revisione intermedia del piano d’azione per i diritti umani e la democrazia. Ha adottato anche la sua relazione annuale sui diritti umani e la democrazia nel mondo nel 2016. Ma questa è (anche) un’altra storia.

Iraqi security council talks with Abadi on post-war improvements

Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi chaired a meeting with Iraq’s National Security Council, where the group of civilian officials and military officers discussed the Mosul offensive to ensure “final victory”. “The Council discussed right axis of liberation battle, triumphs achieved while enhancing battle requirement and ensuring the final victory elements were confirmed in the meeting” was posted on the prime minister’s website.

 

In 2017 the central bank will increase the scale of operations to sterilise the money supply

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Azerbaijan’s central bank could revise interest rates next year if needed to preserve macroeconomic stability, the bank’s governor, Elman Rustamov, said on Tuesday. “In 2017, in connection with the need to achieve our objective of macroeconomic stability and banking sector liquidity, the central bank of Azerbaijan will increase the scale of operations to sterilise the money supply, (and) if necessary, interest rates will be revised,” he said.

Eleonas Hospitality Camp for Refugees – a joint effort under the Syriza government

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This is the second of five articles in the series “Athens: The Crisis Within the Crisis” (click here) INSERT LINK: http://www.europeanaffairs.media/2016/05/28/athens-crisis-within-cris

In the middle of an industrial area is Eleonas Hospitality Camp for Refugees. Friendly men in worn working clothes happily indicate the way, along a very dusty road, where one has to dodge rattling cars, and watch out for steel trash on the ground. Suddenly, through an opening in a wall, appears a village of simple barracks. The lazy police dog lets me through, and while the camp workers check my permission, I have a look around.

Within the walls

The area is covered with asphalt. The barracks are standardized, industrially produced, mounted on concrete bollards, with roofs made from tin plates. They look old and worn out, grass and flowers growing around the bollards. This is the old part of the camp, which was build about a year ago. Many children are playing around, and there are more women than men, most of them with headscarf. Some are queuing in front of one barrack called AΠOΘHKH (“apothiki”), where something is distributed. The people in the queue wear cheap clothes, a random mix. But there are also some more elegantly dressed “middle class refugees”. Some are coming and going through the gate, apparently registering at an office barrack. Most of the people look like Syrians, some like Afghans. In-between the other tasks, one office worker makes several phone calls to the ministry, while I also call my contact in the state administration. Eventually, one camp worker brings me for a tour.

A guided tour

The oldest part of the camp was made at the beginning of the refugee crisis. Here is one part for families, another for singles. Next to the family barracks is one barrack for the Red Cross / Red Crescent, another one for the interpreter’s association and the SOS Children Villages. Some young men are playing football in the sunshine. Besides the barracks for singles, we find the improvised office of the UNHCR, and a barrack for food distribution. The food is delivered from a large kitchen that belongs to the navy. A few people are standing in line to pick up their lunch packages. At dinnertime, there is much more activity, my guide tells me. Next to the main camp is a new one. It was made to accommodate refugees who lived in tents at Pireus Port. The army has installed the barracks, with water and wastewater system. The new camp is divided by country of origin: one part for persons from Syria, another for persons from Afghanistan, and a small part for persons from Iraq. It is easy for people to interact with someone from the same place as themselves. My guide leaves, and I head for the Syrian section.

The “Syrian quarter”

Between the barracks are narrow paths. Under the laundry, a small boy is playing. He points a plastic machine gun at me. The “Syrian quarter” of the camp is overcrowded. Only the very basic infrastructure is in place. The wastewater system is solid enough for disease control, but each toilet has to be shared by several families. I meet two young men who look after their daughters and nieces. They tell that they get food every day, but they are worried about the nutritional value of eating mostly pasta. The meat comes from donations. My guide had told me that all food donations have to be delivered in the original packages from the supermarket, for food safety reasons. The refugees show me vacuum packed chicken with mould inside. The fresh food had become uneatable before arriving to them. Local people donate clothes, shoes, and products of personal hygiene. There are plenty of clothes, and it is a logistic task to put winter clothes on storage and getting the summer clothes out. One father had brought his sick daughter to the Red Cross barrack, but they advised him to go to the Ambolokipi Hospital. This treats poor Greeks and asylum seekers, but is hard to find for a foreigner. With many technical worries, there is a need for practical and mental relief. Eight youngsters arrive with drums and other instruments, led by girl and a boy who are somewhat older. The boy wears a black t-shirt with a red star. The young people start to play with the children in the camp.

Joint effort

The camp is run by the Ministry of Immigration, under the Syriza government. It provides the most vital services, but not much more. This is achieved with very little funding, by mobilizing the kitchen from the navy, plumbers from the army, social services from the United Nations, health services from Non-Governmental Organizations, and cultural activities from volunteers. Old resources are combined in innovative ways, to provide vital services.

An old woman comes up to my guide, complaining about the lack of electrical power. “Ma fi kahraba” she says in Arabic, pointing to the cables. The worker explains in simple English that she does not know when it would be fixed. The electric power comes from the municipality. After the new part of the camp was build, the municipality ha s failed to upgrade the capacity of the electric power supply, resulting in constant power breaks. We look around: The camp is located in the middle of an industrial area. The weak power supply cannot be due to bad capacity, but must be a result of absent coordination.

As I leave the camp, it appears that a third section is being constructed. People with vehicles from the fire brigade are involved in setting up new barracks. Behind them are some men with military vehicles, busily installing new water and wastewater tubes.

Photo: From the “Syrian quarter” within Eleonas refugee camp (by Helge Hiram Jensen)

Israel and Russia, friends or enemies: A Lesson From the Past

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The mainstream rhetoric in the Middle East tends to deliberately or unintentionally portray that the Russian have always posed an imminent threat to Israel’s security neglecting the significant role the Soviets played in the creation of the Jewish State. Without such support at the very beginning, Israel would not have been born.

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Unsurprisingly, the recent military coordination between both countries regarding the on-going proxy war in Syria did not emerge out of nowhere and is not only based on common interests, but can be traced back to the history of the formation of Israel in which Russia played a vital, if often forgotten, role.

Many believed that the birth of Israel owed a lot to Stalin’s Russia. However, others argued that this was unlikely since the Stalinist period was the toughest era in the modern history of Russia due to the restrictive, intolerant and totalitarian policies that Stalin adopted. A number of discriminatory policies against Soviet Jews were carried out during the ‘Soviet Jewry’ period in the early 1950s, which led to a total embargo on Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe.

Taken into consideration the large number of Jewish officers who notably contributed in Soviet arms production during WWII, it would have been a gigantic advantage the fledgling state to increase its manpower both in number and experience.

Despite this, Stalin played an essential role in the formation of Israel particularly during the vote on the UN Partition Plan in 1947, where his Ambassador Andrei Gromyko deliver an unprecedented speech that addressed the horrible fate that Jews have undergone in Europe and their right to have their own state. Moreover, Stalin ordered his allies in the Eastern Communist States to support the establishment of Israel as the decisive bloc that provided the two thirds majority required to win the vote at the UN. Until the late 1940s, Stalin’s Russia supported Israel politically, militarily, and demographically.

Demographically, the USSR made a decisive contribution in increasing Israel’s manpower in which it was one-third of total inhabitants at that time. Stalin supported the Jewish Agency immigration operations, where almost 67% of Jewish immigrants who arrived in Palestine came from Eastern Europe. He also supported Israel politically at the UN through voting against resolution 194, which demanded immediate return of 700,000 Palestinian refugees forcefully expelled from their homeland and absolved Israel of responsibility and blamed Britain.

Militarily, Stalin permitted the Skoda factory to supply the struggling Israeli forces with heavier artillery during the 1948 War. By the early 1950s, Israel received military aid from Stalin’s Russia that exceeded its expectation without having to worry about its relationship with Western powers. Even David Ben-Gurion publicly announced that without the Soviet support at the very beginning, Israel would have never survived the full-scale attack of Arab armies.

However, the explicit objectives of the Soviets support to Israel remained ambiguous. So why did Joseph Stalin support Israel despite of his totalitarian policy? What was his strategy?

It was obvious that Stalin had two complicit strategic ends. Firstly, he aimed at supporting the creation of Israel in order to bring disorder and political unrest to the region and hence, seize the influence of the British Empire. Secondly, he believed that Israel would become a strong ally to the USSR particularly with its socialist ideology that it adopted in the first few years of its establishment.

In the 1950s, Golda Meir put Israel in a neutral position during the Cold War and refused to militarily participate alongside the US in the Korean War. However, Israel relation with Moscow begun to deteriorate because of a number of political events that provoked Stalin’s power, particularly the incident of 1953 Doctor’s Plot.

Israel-USSR relation encountered another drop following Stalin’s death in 1953, where his successors relatively turned against Israel through signing arm deals with Arab states such as the Egyptian-Czechoslovak deal in 1955. As late as 1980s, the USSR signed billion of dollars of arm deals with its Arab clients, which altered the balance of power in the region. As Ariel Sharon declared that Israel faced two sources of existential threats; the Arab military build-ups and the Soviet expansionist policy that supported the Arabs politically and militarily.

Following the dissolution of the USSR, Israeli-Russian relation was restored to the extent that both countries have been sharing common interests in the periphery of the Middle East. The recent bilateral efforts between both countries to avoid unintended conflicts of their airpower in Syria, explicitly demonstrate that Putin’s Russia is still committed to Israel’s security. Perhaps the recent targeted-killing strike of Samir Al-Kuntar in Syria portrays the close Israeli-Russian relation. But not as close as in late 1940s, where, without the Soviet support at the very beginning, Israel would not have seen the light.

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EA MAG: Inside-out – European Border Chronicle

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Migration flows unstoppable created by war and poor economic conditions of many southern states of the world are pushing the frontiers of the European Community. The debate on how to react to this problem unfolds between acceptance and rejection in a Europe that is suffering the most severe economic and demographic crisis of the modern era.

MISSION

Our project wants to make a report along the borders of Europe to tell the chronicle of this phenomenon, collect the testimonies of migrants, citizens and the institutions of the various countries border giving a chance to those who follow the reports of being able to compare the different policies and listen to all the voices in the game without any mediation.

HISTORY

The young journalists of our editorial staff in teams of two will travel to the places where the flows are more intense and the reaction of the institutions more waiting while preparing a team of analysts and journalists will gather all the information with research on open sources.

PROJECT

EUROPEAN AFFAIRS is an online magazine published by the Centro Studi Roma 3000, a non-profit organization that promotes the socio-economic studies and research projects for new models of sustainable development.

The report should contribute to the analysis of the phenomenon of migration flows in support of new models of welcome.

The support required will be used for travel expenses and production in addition to the purchase of any material helping to achieve.

PRODUCTION

Editorial Board: Alessandro Conte, James Pratali Viviana Passalacqua

Producer: Alessandro Conte

Mounting: 3K Production

Original Music: Francesco Verdinelli

Reporter: Giacomo Pratali Viviana Passalacqua, Sabiena Stefanj, Paola Longobardi, Carla Melis, Leonardo Pizzuti, Fabrizio Ciannamea

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Libya: waiting for UN approval

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As announced following the International Conference in Rome, the Libyan factions, all of Tripoli and Tobruk, signed deal for unitt government in Skhirat (Morocco).The Presidential Council, composed of president Sarraj Fayez, three vicepresidents on behalf of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan and other five representatives, have to form new government within 40 days. Moreover, the UN Security Council will vote terms of military operation in the next days, to make safe Tripoli and train local forces. This international coalition will be led by Italy, while Great Britain will send 1000 troops.

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December 17 the 90 representatives of the Assembly of Tobruk and 27 of the GNC Tripoli signed the agreement. The new Presidential Council, in addition to choose new government, will have to convince the presidents of two parliaments to accept the deal. Among the problems which should be solved, there is also the military intervention because several factions prefer the training of Libyan army, rather than a foreign operation.

The most important perspective is about the presence of a unique executive to allow, after Syria, to open another front to fight the Islamic State in Libya, where Sirte became the Caliphate stronghold.

Some US troops are already present, as reported by many international media. As well as France and Great Britain, which reached Libya through southern borders.

And Italy? As leaked out by Italian Defence, the non-intervention in Syria, the contribution to the NATO mission in Iraq (450 soldiers will defende the strategic Mosul Dam), clearly show Italian line: optimize the best efforts, humanly and logistically, to the nearest, and therefore more crucial, Libya.
Giacomo Pratali

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Pope: an African high risk trip

High alert for Pope’s visit to Africa from November 25 to 30. The stages will be Kenya, Uganda and Central African Republic, where terror attack risk is high, as confirmed since last two months by the French intelligence.

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Despite the 148 dead in Kenyan university last April, Central African Republic causes the Holy See and the French Army, Head of the UN mission there, concern. High alert will be reached on November 29, at the opening of Jubilee of Mercy for Africa. Furthermore, Paris and, in particular, Mali hotel attacks further raise anxiety.

Obvious anxiety in Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro Parolin statement: “The Pope wants to go in Africa, even in its most critical stage, Central African Republic, where clashes resumed,” but “if there was ongoing conflicts, it would put Pope and population security at risk. ”

However, this anxiety does not deter the Pope, “ready – as said yesterday – to support interreligious dialogue to promote peaceful coexistence in your country.”

Central African Republic, as other African countries, lives an internal conflict because of civil war begun two and a half ago. Initially, it was not a religious but a political clash between rebels and regular army. After the deposition of President Bozize, this civil war became a religious conflict.

Analyzing the geography of the Central African Republic, the Center-South is more developed and mainly inhabited by Christians, who account for 80% of the total population. The North, however, is less developed and Muslims are in the majority. The lack of attention towards this territory from the capital city of Bangui favored rebels, who poured from aboard and the North of the country.

From 2003 to 2013, the protagonist of the Central African political scene was former President Bozize, twice elected and twice protected by the French army (in 2003 and 2006) during the two civil wars.

The first one (2003-2007) when the politician and soldier Michel Djotodia was his opponent. The second one, despite the cease-fire, in 2012, when presidential guards left him. After the resulting humanitarian crisis, Bozize fled to Cameroon. It was “Seleka”, a coalition of rebel group composed of Central Africans, Chadians and Sudaneses, to expel him.

In 2013, rebels become regular army. However, this new situation caused further clashes in the country, the third civil war since 2003. However, the UN resolution on December authorized France to a military intervention in Central African Republic.

In January 2014 it Catherine Samba-Panza, Christian but neutral, was elected president. She was the first woman to hold the post. Clashes between Muslims and Christians, however, continue to this day.
Giacomo Pratali

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Paris under siege: European 9/11

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At least 127 killed and 197 injured, including no less than 80 seriously wounded. These are dramatic numbers, which are increasing hour by hour, of bombings attacks, on the cry of “it’s for Syria” or “Allahu Akbar” that shook Paris Friday, 13 November. 7 actions accomplished in the heart of the French capital claimed by Islamic State.
The most important at the Bataclan theatre, where about 1,500 people were attending a rock concert. Here, three terrorists went into action, initially taking about a hundred hostages, while 30 was able to immediately escape. Attackers then fired on the crowd. The police raid during night provoked their killing, but also the dramatic discovery of 118 corpses.

This is the most serious incident. But terror lasted for several hours, during which there was fear of further actions. And the high alert, which was followed by the mobilization of more than 1,500 units of the French army, involved several locations in the center of Paris. And blood and victims have consequently risen. 18 killed at La Belle Equipe bar, 15 at Le Carillon bar and Le Petit Cambodge restaurant, 5 at Pizzeria La Casa Nostra, 3 outside Stade France, where, during the friendly match France-Germany, three strong explosions, caused by as many explosions, were heard. On the other side, in addition to the three terrorists killed at the Bataclan, seven blew themselves up, also around 15 and 17 years old.

French President Francois Hollande, who attended match, was immediately cleared out for security reasons and called an extraordinary Council of Ministers. During the speech to the Frech People, he asked the Parisians to open their homes and do not lack the solidarity towards those who was involved. Moreover, declared a “alpha” high alert and announced partial closure and intensification of border controls (in the morning was closed on Mont Blanc pass linking Italy and France).

“As I speak, terrorist attacks of unprecedented proportions are underway in the Paris area. Two decisions will be taken: a state of emergency will be declared, which means that some places will be closed, traffic may be banned, and there will also be searches which may be decided throughout Île-de-France [greater Paris]. The state of emergency will be proclaimed throughout the territory [of France]. The second decision I have made is the closure of borders. We must ensure that no one enters to commit any crimes and that those who have committed the crimes that we have unfortunately seen can also be arrested if they should leave the territory. “ he said.

 

Giacomo Pratali

 

Winter ices migrants flows but not concerns

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Only a year ago, in 2014, the most important route into Europe for migrants was across the Mediterranean sea, in boats of up to 800 passengers from the North African coast to Italy (Lampedusa sas primary destination) or Malta: the southern route. So far in 2015, migration along the alternative eastern route has rised.

 

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Matter of fact, during 2012 a fence was erected on the border between Turkey and Greece, forcing migrants to take boats from the Turkish coast to nearby Greek islands or travel north to the Bulgarian border. In 2014, Bulgaria began building its own fence to prevent this.

In September 2015 alone, 156,000 immigrants took the eastern route compared to just 7,000 in the same month the previous year.

The Schengen area makes things easier once the migrants have entered Hungary or Slovenia, but, on the other hand, things are getting much harder to deal, to administrate for these countries. In early July, Hungary began building a fence on its Serbian border, forcing the migrants on the west route through Croatia, often entering Hungary from there and a second fence was built on the Croatian border in October, pushing people up to Slovenia. Actually, Slovenia is building a fence itself. Balcans countries are struggling in order to face the situation. Albanian Government has already stated that the country will make what’s in it’s possibilty to mitigate the pressure in the area.

European countries are forced, under pressure, to find long term solutions, Germany in first place.

Angela Merkel, German Chancellor and most powerful woman in the planet, is facing risks on her own political body, over migrants crise . When migrants began to arrive in large numbers over the summer, she announced publicly that they were to be welcomed rather than turned away. Considering that an imponent number of Syrians living in Turkey have been able to make a living only because of temporary employment or casual labor, but , as Turkish economy has begun to deteriorate, unemployment has grown by being unaffordable, those Syrians are also leaving Turkey. So, what’s next?

Germany is home to the vast majority of past Turkish immigrants into Europe, and tensions have long been high over the issue. Syrians have a explicit and strong case for asylum, and it is extremely hard to repatriate them. The European Union wants to keep the Balkan countries from confronting one another over migrant flows. At the same time, the bloc wants to keep borders within Europe as open as possible to preserve the union’s structure while apportioning them fairly across the Continent. The Oct. 25 summit likely discussed all of the possible solutions along the migrant route and most summits during last two years have tried the same.

As temperatures drop immigrant flow will arrest the emergency. The latest flows have also revealed a drop in the portion of migrants from Syria and a rise in Afghan and African migrants, partly because of cheap Turkish Airlines flights to North Africa. Unlike Syrians, authorities will find it much easier to send back migrants from these points of origin.

But the fact is that war keeps on radicalizing in Syrian territories, which is much more than a preview on warmer season to come: migrants are most likely not stopping their desperate journeys.

 

Sabiena Stefanaj

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Sabiena Stefanaj
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